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Onglets principaux

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Bonnassieux Yvan
DIRECTEUR DU LPICM

Contact

Bureau : 406:20-09
Téléphone : +33169334302
Département/Laboratoire/Service : CA/DER/LAB/PICM
Fonctions complémentaires :
PROFESSEUR
+33169334302
DIRECTEUR DU LPICM

Bibliographie & travail en cours

Hal

Publications HAL: 

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Enseignement: 

Cours :

Renewable energies

MIE551 - Economie Industrielle (2019-2020)

MIE552 - Innovation et Société (2019-2020)

PHY513B - Projet de Conception expérimentale Microélectronique VLSI (2019-2020)

PHY559A - Conception de circuits intégrés numériques et analogiques (2019-2020)

Digital and analog microelectronics is one of the most fascinating scientific and technological adventures of the past 60 years. The path traveled is great from the first transistor of centimeter size in the late 1940s to the massively parallel current processors containing on 1cm² more than 5 billion transistors.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive approach to current and future methodologies and technologies for digital and analog IC designs.

More specifically, the themes addressed will be:

  • MOS transistors operation and modelization
  • introduction to analog microelectronics : elementary transistor circuits. Speed and Noise

  • Amplifiers and sensors readout
  • introduction to digital electronics.  Combinatorial and sequential logic

  • Analog and digital filtering. Analog to Digital conversion
  • TP electrical simulation (SPICE)


Niveau requis : No specific Background
Modalités d'évaluation :  3h writing exams 
Langue du cours : (lectures) English, (Exercises time) French/English
Credits ECTS : 4




Digital and analog microelectronics is one of the most fascinating scientific and technological adventures of the past 60 years. The path traveled is great from the first transistor of centimeter size in the late 1940s to the massively parallel current processors containing on 1cm² more than 5 billion transistors.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive approach to current and future methodologies and technologies for digital and analog IC designs.

More specifically, the themes addressed will be:

  • MOS transistors operation and modelization
  • introduction to analog microelectronics : elementary transistor circuits. Speed and Noise

  • Amplifiers and sensors readout
  • introduction to digital electronics.  Combinatorial and sequential logic

  • Analog and digital filtering. Analog to Digital conversion
  • TP electrical simulation (SPICE)


Niveau requis : No specific Background
Modalités d'évaluation :  3h writing exams 
Langue du cours : (lectures) English, (Exercises time) French/English
Credits ECTS : 4

PHY559B - Power Electrical Engineering for Renewable Energy (2019-2020)

Introduction

`Power Electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power from its available input into the desired electrical output form. Power electronics has found an important place in renewable energy technology (production, transportation, storage, smartgrid,… ). Almost all the new electrical and electromechanical equipment contain power circuits. The power levels encountered in this field range from less than one watt in supplies for the battery- operated portable equipment to tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power units of office equipment, kilowatts to megawatts in variable-speed motor drives, approaching megawatts in the rectifiers and inverters that interface the local transmission lines with the high power systems.

In the Energy Distribution Networks module, this course explores first the most fundamental issues of power systems and on electrical energy distribution and proposes also a first introduction of smart grids.

After the course, students should:

Have acquired a wide knowledge of the principles of electrical power system (powers variables, conversion system and transportation).

Have acquired good notions on the basics of electrical generator and static convertors.

Be able to select an efficient electrical power system for a specific renewable energy source.

Be able to understand the principles and the main technological, environmental and economic of the electrical power transportation and the smart grids concept.

Be able to compute state variables (voltage, current, powers, frequency deviation) of a basic power grid

For a complete overview of Smart-Grid the student must select also in the second semester the course “Smart-Grid technology”.



Language: English

credits ECTS : 5



Introduction

`Power Electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power from its available input into the desired electrical output form. Power electronics has found an important place in renewable energy technology (production, transportation, storage, smartgrid,… ). Almost all the new electrical and electromechanical equipment contain power circuits. The power levels encountered in this field range from less than one watt in supplies for the battery- operated portable equipment to tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power units of office equipment, kilowatts to megawatts in variable-speed motor drives, approaching megawatts in the rectifiers and inverters that interface the local transmission lines with the high power systems.

In the Energy Distribution Networks module, this course explores first the most fundamental issues of power systems and on electrical energy distribution and proposes also a first introduction of smart grids.

After the course, students should:

Have acquired a wide knowledge of the principles of electrical power system (powers variables, conversion system and transportation).

Have acquired good notions on the basics of electrical generator and static convertors.

Be able to select an efficient electrical power system for a specific renewable energy source.

Be able to understand the principles and the main technological, environmental and economic of the electrical power transportation and the smart grids concept.

Be able to compute state variables (voltage, current, powers, frequency deviation) of a basic power grid

For a complete overview of Smart-Grid the student must select also in the second semester the course “Smart-Grid technology”.



Language: English

credits ECTS : 5

PHY564A - Open Electronics: from Arduino and Raspberry Pi to the Internet of Things (2019-2020)

Ce cours vise à former, autour de TP et d'un projet, sur les concepts de l'électronique libre, des capteurs et des objets connectés. Seront plus particulièrement abordés :

  • Le fonctionnement et l'utilisation de cartes Arduino.
  • Le fonctionnement et l'utilisation de carte Raspberry Pi.
  • La mesure, l'utilisation et l'interfaçage de capteurs.
  • La conception d'objet connectés.

Chaque thématique fera l'objet d'un micro-projets expérimental.

2 séances seront dédiée à un projet imposé portant sur conception d'une station de mesure de température alliant un capteur thermique associé à une carte Arduino et un affichage déporté supporté par une carte Raspberry Pi.

Enfin les 3 dernières séances porterons sur un projet libre .

L'Evaluation se fera via un rapport et Pitch de présentation du projet libre


Langue du cours : Français & Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4

PHY593 - Semi-conducteurs et composants (2019-2020)

Responsable :
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique ; tél. 01 69 33 40 17 / 06 07 11 55 52.
Mél : Contact


Autres enseignants :
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 43 02.
Mél : Contact .


Jean-Eric WEGROWE
LSI, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 45 55
Mél : Contact

Henri JAFFRES
CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
Mél : Contact


PRESENTATION


Cette option regroupe des thèmes de recherche – qui peuvent être de nature très fondamentale ou finalisée - et de recherche-développement dans le domaine des "hautes technologies". Le stagiaire pourra, par exemple, être intégré dans une équipe de physiciens développant des concepts qui ouvrent de nouvelles pistes pour le traitement de l’information du futur ; il pourra aussi être intégré dans une équipe de R&D industrielle développant des composants ou des systèmes. Entre l'ingénieur et le chercheur, il existe une différence dans le positionnement vis-à-vis de la physique : pour le premier, celle-ci est un moyen plutôt qu'une fin. Mais, qu'elle soit utilisée pour ses applications ou qu'elle soit l'objet même de la recherche, il s'agit toujours bien de la même Physique : les équations de Maxwell ou les principes de la Mécanique Quantique s'écrivent sous la même forme et possèdent le même contenu dans un centre de recherche industriel ou dans un laboratoire de recherche fondamentale !


La spécificité du métier d'ingénieur de recherche ou de développement est souvent d'avoir à mener un projet, en cherchant le degré ultime de performance et d'efficacité. Il doit également savoir être pragmatique, car il travaille avec des contraintes pratiques - tout particulièrement délais et coûts - souvent serrées. Les projets industriels présentent en général un caractère pluridisciplinaire marqué, ce qui n'implique pas que chacun devienne spécialiste de tout, mais soit capable de dialoguer efficacement avec des spécialistes d'autres disciplines.


Le stage de recherche consiste en un stage en laboratoire, universitaire ou industriel. Des stages en entreprises - grandes entreprises ou startups - sont également proposés. La dimension internationale des hautes technologies amène naturellement à proposer de nombreux stages à l'étranger dans de prestigieux laboratoires. Dans tous les cas, le stagiaire participera, au sein d’une équipe, à un projet en cours. Les domaines concernés sont très variés : micro- et nano-électronique, optoélectronique, spintronique, électronique grande surface, matériaux en couches minces, nanomatériaux, matériaux magnétiques, instrumentation optique...


C'est une étape logique et incontournable pour celles et ceux qui poursuivront leur formation en "Electrical Engineering", domaine qui couvre un très large spectre dans les universités américaines.



STAGES EN FRANCE ET A L’ÉTRANGER


Ces stages sont ouverts aux élèves indépendamment de leur cursus à l'Ecole. Toutefois, pour certains stages des prérequis peuvent être demandés.


Une cohérence du cursus de 3ème est attendue. Ainsi les stages liés aux semi-conducteurs et à leurs applications ne sont ouverts qu'aux élèves ayant suivi le module d'enseignement "Physique des Composants Semi-conducteurs" (PHY567). Les stages dans le domaine de la spintronique (électronique de spin) sont ouverts aux élèves ayant suivi l’approfondissement correspondant (EA PHY581B). En effet, une préparation préalable spécialisée - lors de l'EA les élèves travaillent sur des articles de recherche souvent en liaison directe avec leur futur stage - et une durée de stage prolongée sont indispensables pour aboutir à des résultats de niveau international. Il est fréquent que les élèves ayant suivi ce parcours publient, à l'issue de leur stage, dans des revues internationales de premier plan. De façon générale, les stages dans un pays éloigné (USA, Canada, Japon, Corée, Australie) se prolongent jusqu'à fin août. Il est fortement recommandé d'entreprendre la définition de son stage le plus tôt possible, en concertation avec les enseignants. Ces stages peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la préparation des formations de 4ème année.



EXEMPLES DE THEMES PROPOSES


- Semi-conducteurs (propriétés électroniques et optiques, élaboration) ;
- Micro- et nano-électronique (conception, élaboration et caractérisation des composants...) ;
- Optoélectronique (lasers à puits quantiques, lasers à cascade quantique, composants III-V...) ;
- Spintronique (Spin injection and transfert, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, têtes de lectures ; voir par exemple :
http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics) ;
- Electronique grande surface, électronique organique (écrans plats, énergie photovoltaïque) ;
- Plasmonique ;
- Détecteurs (infrarouge, rayons X...) et capteurs ;
- Couches minces pour les applications (composants électroniques, optiques...) ;
- Nanomatériaux (nanotubes de carbone, nanofils...) ;
- Physico-chimie des surfaces et interfaces ;
- Magnétisme et matériaux magnétiques ;
- Supraconductivité : matériaux et applications ;
- Métallurgie physique (dislocations, alliages...) ;
- Verres, polymères, cristaux liquides…
- Instrumentation optique (ellipsométrie...) ;
- Electronique médicale ;
- Electronique industrielle, télécommunications ;
- Technologies de la microélectronique, conception de circuits ;
- Traitement du signal, traitement d'images.


LABORATOIRES D'ACCUEIL


A l'Ecole polytechnique :
- Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés (LSI) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (PICM) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (PMC).


En France (exemples de laboratoires ou d'entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Centre de Nanosciences et Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr ) ;
- Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (Université Paris Sud) ;
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache) ;
- ONERA (Palaiseau) ;
- Thales- R&T (Campus Polytechnique) ;
- Saint-Gobain Recherche (Aubervilliers) ;
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy) ;
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


A l’Étranger (exemples de laboratoires ou d’entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS : 20


---------------------------------------------------


Program manager:
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique; phone/cell: 01 69 33 40 17/ 06 07 11 55 52.
E-mail: Contact

Other faculty members:
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 43 02.
E-mail: Contact.

Jean-Eric WEGROWE

LSI, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 45 55.
E-mail: Contact.

Henri JAFFRES

CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
E-mail: Contact


INTRODUCTION
The present program relates to topics which may be truly fundamental or applied, and to R&D in a high-tech area. The trainee may, for example, be integrated into a team of physicists developing concepts that will open new avenues for information processing; it can also be integrated into an R&D team, in a company developing components or systems. Between the engineer and the researcher there is a difference of point of view regarding physics: for the former, this is a means rather than an end. But whether Physics is used for its applications or whether it is the very object of research, it is always the same Physics: Maxwell's equations or the principles of Quantum Mechanics are written under the same form and have the same content in an industrial research center or in a fundamental research laboratory!
The specificity of the job of a R&D engineer is usually to carry out a project, seeking the ultimate degree of performance and efficiency. The engineer has also to be pragmatic, because he handles with practical constraints - especially deadlines and cost. Industrial projects generally have a strong multidisciplinary character, which does not mean that everyone becomes a specialist in everything but is able to interact effectively with specialists from other disciplines.
The internship will be performed in a host laboratory which can be affiliated to a university or to industry. Internships in large companies or in startups can also be offered. The international dimension of high-tech activities naturally leads to numerous internships abroad, in high-visibility laboratories. In all cases, the trainee will take part, as a team member, in an ongoing project. The domain is broad and it includes micro- and nano-electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, large area electronics, thin-film materials, nanomaterials, magnetic materials, optical instrumentation...
This is a logical and unavoidable first step for those who will continue their education in Electrical Engineering, a field that spans a very broad spectrum in US universities.


INTERNSHIP TRAINING
The program is open to students whatever the detail of their curriculum at the Ecole. However, regarding some internships, prerequisites will be requested.
A consistent 3rd-year curriculum is expected. Semiconductor courses and their applications are only open to students who attended the course “Physics of Semiconductor and Components” (PHY567). Internships in spintronics (spin electronics) are open to students who have followed the related training module (EA PHY581B). Indeed, well-focused preparation - during the EA the students work on research papers connected to their internship topic - and an extended period of training are mandatory to achieve results at the cutting edge of research. It is not exceptional for students who have followed this track to publish in leading international journals, as an output of their internship. In general, internships in another country (USA, Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia…) continue until the end of August. It is strongly recommended to start the definition of the internship as soon as possible, in discussion with the faculty. These internships can play an important role in the preparation of 4th year courses.


EXAMPLES OF TOPICS
- Semiconductors (electronic and optical properties, growth);
- Micro- and nano-electronics (design, development and characterization of components ...);
- Optoelectronics (quantum-well lasers, quantum-cascade lasers, III-V devices);
- Spintronics (spin injection and transfer, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, read heads: see for example: http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics);
- Large surface electronics, organic electronics (flat screens, photovoltaics);
- Plasmonics;
- Detectors (infrared, X-rays ...) and sensors;
- Thin films for applications (semiconductor, optical, etc.);
- Nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanopores ...);
- Physical chemistry of surfaces and interfaces;
- Magnetism and magnetic materials;
- Superconductivity: materials and applications;
- Physical metallurgy (dislocations, alloys ...);
- Glasses, polymers, liquid crystals...
- Optical instrumentation (ellipsometry...);
- Medical electronics;
- Industrial electronics, telecommunications;
- Microelectronics technologies, circuit design;
- Signal processing, image processing.


HOST LABORATORIES
At the Ecole Polytechnique:
- Laboratory of Irradiated Solids (LSI);
- Laboratory of Physics of Interfaces and Thin Films (PICM);
- Laboratory of Condensed-Matter Physics (PMC).


In France (examples of laboratories or host companies – there are many opportunities):
- Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr);
- Laboratory Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris);
- Laboratory of Solid Physics (University Paris Sud);
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache);
- ONERA (Palaiseau);
- Thales-R & T (Polytechnique Campus);
- Saint-Gobain Research (Aubervilliers);
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy);
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


Abroad (examples of laboratories or host companies there are many opportunities):
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS: 20


PHY598 - Internship for Energy Environment (2019-2020)

STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

PHY511E - EA PHY573B comme projet 3A (2019-2020)

PHY661I - Smart Grid for Renewable Energy (2019-2020)

Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4




Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4

PHY661K - Advanced Experimental Smart Grid (2019-2020)

The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais




The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais

PHY698 - Internship for Energy Environment II (2019-2020)

STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

MIE550 - Entreprise et Innovation (2019-2020)

PHY559A-T - Conception de circuits intégrés numériques et analogiques - Tutorat (2019-2020)

STG-M2ITIE - Stage M2 ITIE (2019-2020)

Ressources pédagogiques

Plan de continuité d'activité d'enseignement

PHY559A - Conception de circuits intégrés numériques et analogiques (2020-2021)

Digital and analog microelectronics is one of the most fascinating scientific and technological adventures of the past 60 years. The path traveled is great from the first transistor of centimeter size in the late 1940s to the massively parallel current processors containing on 1cm² more than 5 billion transistors.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive approach to current and future methodologies and technologies for digital and analog IC designs.

More specifically, the themes addressed will be:

  • MOS transistors operation and modelization
  • introduction to analog microelectronics : elementary transistor circuits. Speed and Noise

  • Amplifiers and sensors readout
  • introduction to digital electronics.  Combinatorial and sequential logic

  • Analog and digital filtering. Analog to Digital conversion
  • TP electrical simulation (SPICE)


Niveau requis : No specific Background
Modalités d'évaluation :  3h writing exams 
Langue du cours : (lectures) English, (Exercises time) French/English
Credits ECTS : 4




Digital and analog microelectronics is one of the most fascinating scientific and technological adventures of the past 60 years. The path traveled is great from the first transistor of centimeter size in the late 1940s to the massively parallel current processors containing on 1cm² more than 5 billion transistors.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive approach to current and future methodologies and technologies for digital and analog IC designs.

More specifically, the themes addressed will be:

  • MOS transistors operation and modelization
  • introduction to analog microelectronics : elementary transistor circuits. Speed and Noise

  • Amplifiers and sensors readout
  • introduction to digital electronics.  Combinatorial and sequential logic

  • Analog and digital filtering. Analog to Digital conversion
  • TP electrical simulation (SPICE)


Niveau requis : No specific Background
Modalités d'évaluation :  3h writing exams 
Langue du cours : (lectures) English, (Exercises time) French/English
Credits ECTS : 4

PHY559B - Power Electrical Engineering for Renewable Energy (2020-2021)

Introduction

`Power Electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power from its available input into the desired electrical output form. Power electronics has found an important place in renewable energy technology (production, transportation, storage, smartgrid,… ). Almost all the new electrical and electromechanical equipment contain power circuits. The power levels encountered in this field range from less than one watt in supplies for the battery- operated portable equipment to tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power units of office equipment, kilowatts to megawatts in variable-speed motor drives, approaching megawatts in the rectifiers and inverters that interface the local transmission lines with the high power systems.

In the Energy Distribution Networks module, this course explores first the most fundamental issues of power systems and on electrical energy distribution and proposes also a first introduction of smart grids.

After the course, students should:

Have acquired a wide knowledge of the principles of electrical power system (powers variables, conversion system and transportation).

Have acquired good notions on the basics of electrical generator and static convertors.

Be able to select an efficient electrical power system for a specific renewable energy source.

Be able to understand the principles and the main technological, environmental and economic of the electrical power transportation and the smart grids concept.

Be able to compute state variables (voltage, current, powers, frequency deviation) of a basic power grid

For a complete overview of Smart-Grid the student must select also in the second semester the course “Smart-Grid technology”.



Language: English

credits ECTS : 5



Introduction

`Power Electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power from its available input into the desired electrical output form. Power electronics has found an important place in renewable energy technology (production, transportation, storage, smartgrid,… ). Almost all the new electrical and electromechanical equipment contain power circuits. The power levels encountered in this field range from less than one watt in supplies for the battery- operated portable equipment to tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power units of office equipment, kilowatts to megawatts in variable-speed motor drives, approaching megawatts in the rectifiers and inverters that interface the local transmission lines with the high power systems.

In the Energy Distribution Networks module, this course explores first the most fundamental issues of power systems and on electrical energy distribution and proposes also a first introduction of smart grids.

After the course, students should:

Have acquired a wide knowledge of the principles of electrical power system (powers variables, conversion system and transportation).

Have acquired good notions on the basics of electrical generator and static convertors.

Be able to select an efficient electrical power system for a specific renewable energy source.

Be able to understand the principles and the main technological, environmental and economic of the electrical power transportation and the smart grids concept.

Be able to compute state variables (voltage, current, powers, frequency deviation) of a basic power grid

For a complete overview of Smart-Grid the student must select also in the second semester the course “Smart-Grid technology”.



Language: English

credits ECTS : 5

PHY593 - Semi-conducteurs et composants (2020-2021)

Responsable :
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique ; tél. 01 69 33 40 17 / 06 07 11 55 52.
Mél : Contact


Autres enseignants :
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 43 02.
Mél : Contact .


Jean-Eric WEGROWE
LSI, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 45 55
Mél : Contact

Henri JAFFRES
CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
Mél : Contact


PRESENTATION


Cette option regroupe des thèmes de recherche – qui peuvent être de nature très fondamentale ou finalisée - et de recherche-développement dans le domaine des "hautes technologies". Le stagiaire pourra, par exemple, être intégré dans une équipe de physiciens développant des concepts qui ouvrent de nouvelles pistes pour le traitement de l’information du futur ; il pourra aussi être intégré dans une équipe de R&D industrielle développant des composants ou des systèmes. Entre l'ingénieur et le chercheur, il existe une différence dans le positionnement vis-à-vis de la physique : pour le premier, celle-ci est un moyen plutôt qu'une fin. Mais, qu'elle soit utilisée pour ses applications ou qu'elle soit l'objet même de la recherche, il s'agit toujours bien de la même Physique : les équations de Maxwell ou les principes de la Mécanique Quantique s'écrivent sous la même forme et possèdent le même contenu dans un centre de recherche industriel ou dans un laboratoire de recherche fondamentale !


La spécificité du métier d'ingénieur de recherche ou de développement est souvent d'avoir à mener un projet, en cherchant le degré ultime de performance et d'efficacité. Il doit également savoir être pragmatique, car il travaille avec des contraintes pratiques - tout particulièrement délais et coûts - souvent serrées. Les projets industriels présentent en général un caractère pluridisciplinaire marqué, ce qui n'implique pas que chacun devienne spécialiste de tout, mais soit capable de dialoguer efficacement avec des spécialistes d'autres disciplines.


Le stage de recherche consiste en un stage en laboratoire, universitaire ou industriel. Des stages en entreprises - grandes entreprises ou startups - sont également proposés. La dimension internationale des hautes technologies amène naturellement à proposer de nombreux stages à l'étranger dans de prestigieux laboratoires. Dans tous les cas, le stagiaire participera, au sein d’une équipe, à un projet en cours. Les domaines concernés sont très variés : micro- et nano-électronique, optoélectronique, spintronique, électronique grande surface, matériaux en couches minces, nanomatériaux, matériaux magnétiques, instrumentation optique...


C'est une étape logique et incontournable pour celles et ceux qui poursuivront leur formation en "Electrical Engineering", domaine qui couvre un très large spectre dans les universités américaines.



STAGES EN FRANCE ET A L’ÉTRANGER


Ces stages sont ouverts aux élèves indépendamment de leur cursus à l'Ecole. Toutefois, pour certains stages des prérequis peuvent être demandés.


Une cohérence du cursus de 3ème est attendue. Ainsi les stages liés aux semi-conducteurs et à leurs applications ne sont ouverts qu'aux élèves ayant suivi le module d'enseignement "Physique des Composants Semi-conducteurs" (PHY567). Les stages dans le domaine de la spintronique (électronique de spin) sont ouverts aux élèves ayant suivi l’approfondissement correspondant (EA PHY581B). En effet, une préparation préalable spécialisée - lors de l'EA les élèves travaillent sur des articles de recherche souvent en liaison directe avec leur futur stage - et une durée de stage prolongée sont indispensables pour aboutir à des résultats de niveau international. Il est fréquent que les élèves ayant suivi ce parcours publient, à l'issue de leur stage, dans des revues internationales de premier plan. De façon générale, les stages dans un pays éloigné (USA, Canada, Japon, Corée, Australie) se prolongent jusqu'à fin août. Il est fortement recommandé d'entreprendre la définition de son stage le plus tôt possible, en concertation avec les enseignants. Ces stages peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la préparation des formations de 4ème année.



EXEMPLES DE THEMES PROPOSES


- Semi-conducteurs (propriétés électroniques et optiques, élaboration) ;
- Micro- et nano-électronique (conception, élaboration et caractérisation des composants...) ;
- Optoélectronique (lasers à puits quantiques, lasers à cascade quantique, composants III-V...) ;
- Spintronique (Spin injection and transfert, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, têtes de lectures ; voir par exemple :
http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics) ;
- Electronique grande surface, électronique organique (écrans plats, énergie photovoltaïque) ;
- Plasmonique ;
- Détecteurs (infrarouge, rayons X...) et capteurs ;
- Couches minces pour les applications (composants électroniques, optiques...) ;
- Nanomatériaux (nanotubes de carbone, nanofils...) ;
- Physico-chimie des surfaces et interfaces ;
- Magnétisme et matériaux magnétiques ;
- Supraconductivité : matériaux et applications ;
- Métallurgie physique (dislocations, alliages...) ;
- Verres, polymères, cristaux liquides…
- Instrumentation optique (ellipsométrie...) ;
- Electronique médicale ;
- Electronique industrielle, télécommunications ;
- Technologies de la microélectronique, conception de circuits ;
- Traitement du signal, traitement d'images.


LABORATOIRES D'ACCUEIL


A l'Ecole polytechnique :
- Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés (LSI) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (PICM) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (PMC).


En France (exemples de laboratoires ou d'entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Centre de Nanosciences et Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr ) ;
- Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (Université Paris Sud) ;
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache) ;
- ONERA (Palaiseau) ;
- Thales- R&T (Campus Polytechnique) ;
- Saint-Gobain Recherche (Aubervilliers) ;
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy) ;
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


A l’Étranger (exemples de laboratoires ou d’entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS : 20


---------------------------------------------------


Program manager:
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique; phone/cell: 01 69 33 40 17/ 06 07 11 55 52.
E-mail: Contact

Other faculty members:
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 43 02.
E-mail: Contact.

Jean-Eric WEGROWE

LSI, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 45 55.
E-mail: Contact.

Henri JAFFRES

CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
E-mail: Contact


INTRODUCTION
The present program relates to topics which may be truly fundamental or applied, and to R&D in a high-tech area. The trainee may, for example, be integrated into a team of physicists developing concepts that will open new avenues for information processing; it can also be integrated into an R&D team, in a company developing components or systems. Between the engineer and the researcher there is a difference of point of view regarding physics: for the former, this is a means rather than an end. But whether Physics is used for its applications or whether it is the very object of research, it is always the same Physics: Maxwell's equations or the principles of Quantum Mechanics are written under the same form and have the same content in an industrial research center or in a fundamental research laboratory!
The specificity of the job of a R&D engineer is usually to carry out a project, seeking the ultimate degree of performance and efficiency. The engineer has also to be pragmatic, because he handles with practical constraints - especially deadlines and cost. Industrial projects generally have a strong multidisciplinary character, which does not mean that everyone becomes a specialist in everything but is able to interact effectively with specialists from other disciplines.
The internship will be performed in a host laboratory which can be affiliated to a university or to industry. Internships in large companies or in startups can also be offered. The international dimension of high-tech activities naturally leads to numerous internships abroad, in high-visibility laboratories. In all cases, the trainee will take part, as a team member, in an ongoing project. The domain is broad and it includes micro- and nano-electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, large area electronics, thin-film materials, nanomaterials, magnetic materials, optical instrumentation...
This is a logical and unavoidable first step for those who will continue their education in Electrical Engineering, a field that spans a very broad spectrum in US universities.


INTERNSHIP TRAINING
The program is open to students whatever the detail of their curriculum at the Ecole. However, regarding some internships, prerequisites will be requested.
A consistent 3rd-year curriculum is expected. Semiconductor courses and their applications are only open to students who attended the course “Physics of Semiconductor and Components” (PHY567). Internships in spintronics (spin electronics) are open to students who have followed the related training module (EA PHY581B). Indeed, well-focused preparation - during the EA the students work on research papers connected to their internship topic - and an extended period of training are mandatory to achieve results at the cutting edge of research. It is not exceptional for students who have followed this track to publish in leading international journals, as an output of their internship. In general, internships in another country (USA, Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia…) continue until the end of August. It is strongly recommended to start the definition of the internship as soon as possible, in discussion with the faculty. These internships can play an important role in the preparation of 4th year courses.


EXAMPLES OF TOPICS
- Semiconductors (electronic and optical properties, growth);
- Micro- and nano-electronics (design, development and characterization of components ...);
- Optoelectronics (quantum-well lasers, quantum-cascade lasers, III-V devices);
- Spintronics (spin injection and transfer, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, read heads: see for example: http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics);
- Large surface electronics, organic electronics (flat screens, photovoltaics);
- Plasmonics;
- Detectors (infrared, X-rays ...) and sensors;
- Thin films for applications (semiconductor, optical, etc.);
- Nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanopores ...);
- Physical chemistry of surfaces and interfaces;
- Magnetism and magnetic materials;
- Superconductivity: materials and applications;
- Physical metallurgy (dislocations, alloys ...);
- Glasses, polymers, liquid crystals...
- Optical instrumentation (ellipsometry...);
- Medical electronics;
- Industrial electronics, telecommunications;
- Microelectronics technologies, circuit design;
- Signal processing, image processing.


HOST LABORATORIES
At the Ecole Polytechnique:
- Laboratory of Irradiated Solids (LSI);
- Laboratory of Physics of Interfaces and Thin Films (PICM);
- Laboratory of Condensed-Matter Physics (PMC).


In France (examples of laboratories or host companies – there are many opportunities):
- Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr);
- Laboratory Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris);
- Laboratory of Solid Physics (University Paris Sud);
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache);
- ONERA (Palaiseau);
- Thales-R & T (Polytechnique Campus);
- Saint-Gobain Research (Aubervilliers);
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy);
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


Abroad (examples of laboratories or host companies there are many opportunities):
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS: 20


PHY573B - Ecrans plats et électronique flexible (2020-2021)

Parmi les technologies de l'électronique, un nouveau champ s'est fortement développé ces 20 dernières années : les écrans plats et plus généralement l'électronique sur grands substrats (inorganique ou organique). Passant de structures monochromes de faibles dimensions (20cm de diagonale vers 1995) nous sommes maintenant avec des écrans de plus de 2m de diagonale, extrêmement fins, possédant une définition proche de celle de l'œil et permettant la visualisation en 3D.

Ce cours se propose donc de faire un tour d’horizon exhaustif des technologies présentes et futures des écrans plats avec une forte ouverture sur la problématique en pleine croissance de l'électronique organique sur substrat flexible.
• Signal Vidéo analogique (Secam, Pal,...) et numérique (MPEG) et écran CRT
• Cristaux liquides et Écran LCD
• OLED et écran AMOLED
• Écran Plasma, FED, Epaper, LCOS,.....
• Électronique sur grands substrats (silicium et oxyde métallique transparent)
• Électronique Organique sur substrat flexible

Il est à noter que ce cours comporte une forte composante expérimentale en salle blanche. En effet, 3 à 4 séances seront dédiées à la réalisation et à la caractérisation de transistors TFT sur substrats plastiques.

Numerus clausus : 16

Modalités d'évaluation : Examen oral

Langue du cours : Français

Credits ECTS : 4

GEN411 - Présentations et Evénements (2019-2020)

PHY661I - Smart Grid for Renewable Energy (2020-2021)

Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4




Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4

PHY661K - Advanced Experimental Smart Grid (2020-2021)

The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais




The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais

PHY598 - Internship for Energy Environment (2020-2021)

STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

PHY698 - Internship for Energy Environment II (2020-2021)

STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

PHY530 - Refresher Course in Physics (2020-2021)

Renewable energies S2020/2021

GEN506 - Présentation du PA Electrical Engineering (2020-2021)

MEC669 - Microfluidics and Biosystems (2020-2021)

In this course, we will build on the concepts introduced in the first year of the program to better understand how microfluidic devices work. We will take a close look at fluid flows and how to manipulate them at small scales, and delve into notions from chemistry, biochemistry and biology to obtain a better insight into the promises and current limitations of existing microdevices.

PHY513B - Projet de Conception expérimentale Microélectronique VLSI (2020-2021)

PHY652E - Introduction to Power Systems (Intro to PS) (2020-2021)

MIE550 - Entreprise et Innovation (2020-2021)

MIE551 - Economie Industrielle (2020-2021)

MIE552 - Innovation et Société (2020-2021)

PHY511E - EA PHY573B comme projet 3A (2020-2021)

EP-ATC1 - Présentation (2019-2020)

GEN400 - GEN400 - Amphis de Présentation (2020-2021)

PHY511E - EA PHY573B comme projet 3A (2021-2022)

PHY513B - Projet de Conception expérimentale Microélectronique VLSI (2021-2022)

PHY559A - Conception of numerical and analog integrated circuits (2021-2022)

Digital and analog microelectronics is one of the most fascinating scientific and technological adventures of the past 60 years. The path traveled is great from the first transistor of centimeter size in the late 1940s to the massively parallel current processors containing on 1cm² more than 5 billion transistors.

This course aims to provide a comprehensive approach to current and future methodologies and technologies for digital and analog IC designs.

More specifically, the themes addressed will be:

  • MOS transistors operation and modelization
  • introduction to analog microelectronics : elementary transistor circuits. Speed and Noise

  • Amplifiers and sensors readout
  • introduction to digital electronics.  Combinatorial and sequential logic

  • Analog and digital filtering. Analog to Digital conversion
  • TP electrical simulation (SPICE)


Niveau requis : No specific Background
Modalités d'évaluation :  3h writing exams 
Langue du cours : (lectures) English, (Exercises time) French/English
Credits ECTS : 5

PHY559A-T - Conception de circuits intégrés numériques et analogiques - Tutorat (2021-2022)

PHY559B - Power Electrical Engineering for Renewable Energy (2021-2022)

Introduction

`Power Electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power from its available input into the desired electrical output form. Power electronics has found an important place in renewable energy technology (production, transportation, storage, smartgrid,… ). Almost all the new electrical and electromechanical equipment contain power circuits. The power levels encountered in this field range from less than one watt in supplies for the battery- operated portable equipment to tens, hundreds, or thousands of watts in power units of office equipment, kilowatts to megawatts in variable-speed motor drives, approaching megawatts in the rectifiers and inverters that interface the local transmission lines with the high power systems.

In the Energy Distribution Networks module, this course explores first the most fundamental issues of power systems and on electrical energy distribution and proposes also a first introduction of smart grids.

After the course, students should:

Have acquired a wide knowledge of the principles of electrical power system (powers variables, conversion system and transportation).

Have acquired good notions on the basics of electrical generator and static convertors.

Be able to select an efficient electrical power system for a specific renewable energy source.

Be able to understand the principles and the main technological, environmental and economic of the electrical power transportation and the smart grids concept.

Be able to compute state variables (voltage, current, powers, frequency deviation) of a basic power grid

For a complete overview of Smart-Grid the student must select also in the second semester the course “Smart-Grid technology”.



Language: English

credits ECTS : 5

PHY593 - Semi-conducteurs et composants (2021-2022)

Responsable :
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique ; tél. 01 69 33 40 17 / 06 07 11 55 52.
Mél : Contact


Autres enseignants :
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 43 02.
Mél : Contact .


Jean-Eric WEGROWE
LSI, Ecole Polytechnique. Tél. 01 69 33 45 55
Mél : Contact

Henri JAFFRES
CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
Mél : Contact


PRESENTATION


Cette option regroupe des thèmes de recherche – qui peuvent être de nature très fondamentale ou finalisée - et de recherche-développement dans le domaine des "hautes technologies". Le stagiaire pourra, par exemple, être intégré dans une équipe de physiciens développant des concepts qui ouvrent de nouvelles pistes pour le traitement de l’information du futur ; il pourra aussi être intégré dans une équipe de R&D industrielle développant des composants ou des systèmes. Entre l'ingénieur et le chercheur, il existe une différence dans le positionnement vis-à-vis de la physique : pour le premier, celle-ci est un moyen plutôt qu'une fin. Mais, qu'elle soit utilisée pour ses applications ou qu'elle soit l'objet même de la recherche, il s'agit toujours bien de la même Physique : les équations de Maxwell ou les principes de la Mécanique Quantique s'écrivent sous la même forme et possèdent le même contenu dans un centre de recherche industriel ou dans un laboratoire de recherche fondamentale !


La spécificité du métier d'ingénieur de recherche ou de développement est souvent d'avoir à mener un projet, en cherchant le degré ultime de performance et d'efficacité. Il doit également savoir être pragmatique, car il travaille avec des contraintes pratiques - tout particulièrement délais et coûts - souvent serrées. Les projets industriels présentent en général un caractère pluridisciplinaire marqué, ce qui n'implique pas que chacun devienne spécialiste de tout, mais soit capable de dialoguer efficacement avec des spécialistes d'autres disciplines.


Le stage de recherche consiste en un stage en laboratoire, universitaire ou industriel. Des stages en entreprises - grandes entreprises ou startups - sont également proposés. La dimension internationale des hautes technologies amène naturellement à proposer de nombreux stages à l'étranger dans de prestigieux laboratoires. Dans tous les cas, le stagiaire participera, au sein d’une équipe, à un projet en cours. Les domaines concernés sont très variés : micro- et nano-électronique, optoélectronique, spintronique, électronique grande surface, matériaux en couches minces, nanomatériaux, matériaux magnétiques, instrumentation optique...


C'est une étape logique et incontournable pour celles et ceux qui poursuivront leur formation en "Electrical Engineering", domaine qui couvre un très large spectre dans les universités américaines.



STAGES EN FRANCE ET A L’ÉTRANGER


Ces stages sont ouverts aux élèves indépendamment de leur cursus à l'Ecole. Toutefois, pour certains stages des prérequis peuvent être demandés.


Une cohérence du cursus de 3ème est attendue. Ainsi les stages liés aux semi-conducteurs et à leurs applications ne sont ouverts qu'aux élèves ayant suivi le module d'enseignement "Physique des Composants Semi-conducteurs" (PHY567). Les stages dans le domaine de la spintronique (électronique de spin) sont ouverts aux élèves ayant suivi l’approfondissement correspondant (EA PHY581B). En effet, une préparation préalable spécialisée - lors de l'EA les élèves travaillent sur des articles de recherche souvent en liaison directe avec leur futur stage - et une durée de stage prolongée sont indispensables pour aboutir à des résultats de niveau international. Il est fréquent que les élèves ayant suivi ce parcours publient, à l'issue de leur stage, dans des revues internationales de premier plan. De façon générale, les stages dans un pays éloigné (USA, Canada, Japon, Corée, Australie) se prolongent jusqu'à fin août. Il est fortement recommandé d'entreprendre la définition de son stage le plus tôt possible, en concertation avec les enseignants. Ces stages peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la préparation des formations de 4ème année.



EXEMPLES DE THEMES PROPOSES


- Semi-conducteurs (propriétés électroniques et optiques, élaboration) ;
- Micro- et nano-électronique (conception, élaboration et caractérisation des composants...) ;
- Optoélectronique (lasers à puits quantiques, lasers à cascade quantique, composants III-V...) ;
- Spintronique (Spin injection and transfert, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, têtes de lectures ; voir par exemple :
http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics) ;
- Electronique grande surface, électronique organique (écrans plats, énergie photovoltaïque) ;
- Plasmonique ;
- Détecteurs (infrarouge, rayons X...) et capteurs ;
- Couches minces pour les applications (composants électroniques, optiques...) ;
- Nanomatériaux (nanotubes de carbone, nanofils...) ;
- Physico-chimie des surfaces et interfaces ;
- Magnétisme et matériaux magnétiques ;
- Supraconductivité : matériaux et applications ;
- Métallurgie physique (dislocations, alliages...) ;
- Verres, polymères, cristaux liquides…
- Instrumentation optique (ellipsométrie...) ;
- Electronique médicale ;
- Electronique industrielle, télécommunications ;
- Technologies de la microélectronique, conception de circuits ;
- Traitement du signal, traitement d'images.


LABORATOIRES D'ACCUEIL


A l'Ecole polytechnique :
- Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés (LSI) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (PICM) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (PMC).


En France (exemples de laboratoires ou d'entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Centre de Nanosciences et Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr ) ;
- Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris) ;
- Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (Université Paris Sud) ;
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache) ;
- ONERA (Palaiseau) ;
- Thales- R&T (Campus Polytechnique) ;
- Saint-Gobain Recherche (Aubervilliers) ;
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy) ;
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


A l’Étranger (exemples de laboratoires ou d’entreprises d'accueil - les possibilités sont très nombreuses) :
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS : 20


---------------------------------------------------


Program manager:
Henri-Jean DROUHIN
LSI, DAER, Ecole polytechnique; phone/cell: 01 69 33 40 17/ 06 07 11 55 52.
E-mail: Contact

Other faculty members:
Yvan BONNASSIEUX
LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 43 02.
E-mail: Contact.

Jean-Eric WEGROWE

LSI, Ecole Polytechnique; phone: 01 69 33 45 55.
E-mail: Contact.

Henri JAFFRES

CNRS,Thalès. Tél. 01 69 41 58 70
E-mail: Contact


INTRODUCTION
The present program relates to topics which may be truly fundamental or applied, and to R&D in a high-tech area. The trainee may, for example, be integrated into a team of physicists developing concepts that will open new avenues for information processing; it can also be integrated into an R&D team, in a company developing components or systems. Between the engineer and the researcher there is a difference of point of view regarding physics: for the former, this is a means rather than an end. But whether Physics is used for its applications or whether it is the very object of research, it is always the same Physics: Maxwell's equations or the principles of Quantum Mechanics are written under the same form and have the same content in an industrial research center or in a fundamental research laboratory!
The specificity of the job of a R&D engineer is usually to carry out a project, seeking the ultimate degree of performance and efficiency. The engineer has also to be pragmatic, because he handles with practical constraints - especially deadlines and cost. Industrial projects generally have a strong multidisciplinary character, which does not mean that everyone becomes a specialist in everything but is able to interact effectively with specialists from other disciplines.
The internship will be performed in a host laboratory which can be affiliated to a university or to industry. Internships in large companies or in startups can also be offered. The international dimension of high-tech activities naturally leads to numerous internships abroad, in high-visibility laboratories. In all cases, the trainee will take part, as a team member, in an ongoing project. The domain is broad and it includes micro- and nano-electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, large area electronics, thin-film materials, nanomaterials, magnetic materials, optical instrumentation...
This is a logical and unavoidable first step for those who will continue their education in Electrical Engineering, a field that spans a very broad spectrum in US universities.


INTERNSHIP TRAINING
The program is open to students whatever the detail of their curriculum at the Ecole. However, regarding some internships, prerequisites will be requested.
A consistent 3rd-year curriculum is expected. Semiconductor courses and their applications are only open to students who attended the course “Physics of Semiconductor and Components” (PHY567). Internships in spintronics (spin electronics) are open to students who have followed the related training module (EA PHY581B). Indeed, well-focused preparation - during the EA the students work on research papers connected to their internship topic - and an extended period of training are mandatory to achieve results at the cutting edge of research. It is not exceptional for students who have followed this track to publish in leading international journals, as an output of their internship. In general, internships in another country (USA, Canada, Japan, Korea, Australia…) continue until the end of August. It is strongly recommended to start the definition of the internship as soon as possible, in discussion with the faculty. These internships can play an important role in the preparation of 4th year courses.


EXAMPLES OF TOPICS
- Semiconductors (electronic and optical properties, growth);
- Micro- and nano-electronics (design, development and characterization of components ...);
- Optoelectronics (quantum-well lasers, quantum-cascade lasers, III-V devices);
- Spintronics (spin injection and transfer, Spin Hall effect, topological matter, GMR, TMR, MRAMs, read heads: see for example: http://spie.org/OPN/conferencedetails/spintronics);
- Large surface electronics, organic electronics (flat screens, photovoltaics);
- Plasmonics;
- Detectors (infrared, X-rays ...) and sensors;
- Thin films for applications (semiconductor, optical, etc.);
- Nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanopores ...);
- Physical chemistry of surfaces and interfaces;
- Magnetism and magnetic materials;
- Superconductivity: materials and applications;
- Physical metallurgy (dislocations, alloys ...);
- Glasses, polymers, liquid crystals...
- Optical instrumentation (ellipsometry...);
- Medical electronics;
- Industrial electronics, telecommunications;
- Microelectronics technologies, circuit design;
- Signal processing, image processing.


HOST LABORATORIES
At the Ecole Polytechnique:
- Laboratory of Irradiated Solids (LSI);
- Laboratory of Physics of Interfaces and Thin Films (PICM);
- Laboratory of Condensed-Matter Physics (PMC).


In France (examples of laboratories or host companies – there are many opportunities):
- Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, C2N (http://www.c2n.universite-paris-saclay.fr);
- Laboratory Pierre Aigrain (ENS - Paris);
- Laboratory of Solid Physics (University Paris Sud);
- CEA (Saclay, Grenoble, Cadarache);
- ONERA (Palaiseau);
- Thales-R & T (Polytechnique Campus);
- Saint-Gobain Research (Aubervilliers);
- Sagem (Argenteuil, Massy);
- ST Microelectronics (Crolles).


Abroad (examples of laboratories or host companies there are many opportunities):
- Australian National University (Canberra, Australia).
- EPFL (Lausanne, CH);
- Paul Drude Institute, Berlin (Germany);
- Peter Grünberg Institute, Jülich (Germany);
- Universität Stuttgart (Germany);
- Universität Würzburg (Germany);
- Universität Regensburg (Germany);
- Politecnico di Milano (Italy);
- Politecnico di Torino (Italy);
- Universities of Kyoto and Tokyo (Japan);
- IOFFE institute, Saint Petersburg (Russia);
- University of Barcelona (Spain);
- University of Cambridge (UK);
- University at Buffalo (USA);
- University of California (Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara, USA);
- California State University (Northridge, CA, USA);
- Harvard University (USA);
- MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA);
- Northwestern University (Chicago, USA);
- Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, USA);
- Headway Technologies, Milpitas (CA, USA);
- LAM Research (Fremont, USA);


Credits ECTS: 20


PHY598 - Internship for Energy Environment (2021-2022)

STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-1 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 16 to 20 weeks (4 to 5 months), except somewhat shorter for RENE students.

A STEEM-1 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body.

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization. In that respect, we advise against start-up internships during STEEM-1 because the management capacities are there generally insufficient for your benefit and the topic studied to narrow. It will be much more interesting for you to join a startup during the second-year internship then this company will benefit of your previous experience and your scientific background.

The ability to present the progress of your internship and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account.

Also, do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Uyen-Chi NGUYEN, in charge of Master-1 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

GEN506 - Présentation du PA Electrical Engineering (2021-2022)

PAN3A-P1 - Cours panaché P1 (2021-2022)

PAN3A-P2 - Cours panaché P2 (2021-2022)

MIE660A - Cours spécialité / Track scientifique (2021-2022)

PHY661I - Smart Grid for Renewable Energy (2021-2022)

Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4




Topic

Introduction of smart grid

  • Electrical powers distribution
  • Some definition of Smart grid concept
  • Technological point of view of smart grid (some example with renewable energy)
  • Societal and economical point of view of the smart grid

Integration of renewable power into the grid: context and solutions 

  • Power markets
  • Variability and predictability of solar and wind power. Short term forecasting of wind power, solar power and demand.  
  • Connection of decentralized production in the distribution system
  • Predictive management of distribution systems
  • Presentation of power system economics.
  • Aspects of optimal generation mix. Spot pricing. European market mechanisms.

Practical work:

  • Computation of optimal generation mix with AMPL
  • Simulation of the French power market mechanisms with DREAM

Langue du cours : Anglais

Credits ECTS : 4

PHY661K - Advanced Experimental Smart Grid (2021-2022)

The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais




The development of Smart-Grids is expected to come from the aggregation of basic low voltage power supply networks, known as micro-grids, which associate local energy production with storage capacities and energy consumers. Micro-grids restricted to a single building are often called "Nano-grids" and are also getting attention as the building block of a micro-grid.  Such Nano-grids are vulnerable to both sudden changes of power generation and load demand because of their small size, especially when operating in an island mode. Thus, managing uncertainty becomes essential when searching for an optimal Nano-grid operation.

The students will experience on a small-size Nano-grid model installed in Ecole Polytechnique campus, (Renewables sources, battery, controlled load, intelligent monitoring, …).  This structure has the particularity that two components are emulated with controlled electronic devices: the secondary power source, which replaces the role of an engine-generator (in case of an off-grid scenario) or the electric utility power, and the load, which replaces a real power demand from appliances and consumer actions. The electric parameters (intensity, voltage, power) for all components, as well as air/panel temperatures, are available in real-time and also from historical recordings.

 By example, the experimental project can be:

  • The analysis of historical data so to evaluate the performance of Nano-grid for different types of days, consumption scenarios and management strategies.
  • The evaluation of live Nano-grid performance through manual operation, by adjusting the target loads, the optimization EMS parameters and the input power.
  • The development of new energy management system or new algorithm.
  • The integration of new renewable sources in the Nano-grid.
  • ...........

Langue du cours : Anglais

Renewable energies S2021/2022

PHY698 - Internship for Energy Environment II (2021-2022)

STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.



STEEM-2 internships will start from the end of March and shall last 20 to 24 weeks (5 to 6 months).

A STEEM-2 internship must be a research internship.

However, the word research can be appreciated quite widely. It is not necessarily academic research, it may be scientific, technical, industrial or economic research or development, but it is not an execution internship. Indeed, the internship must not consist of carrying out standard works, whether predefined or not, within a department; the internship must have a well-defined objective and must lead to the realization of an original deliverable: a software, an experiment, a study that can be scientific, statistical, economic .... but original!

There is also no restriction on the organization hosting you: academic lab. or company, from start-up to large industrial group, or administration or paraadministrative body, in France or abroad (but this may cause visa problems).

Fundamentally what is important is to assess the managerial capacity of the host organization, how it can guide you in your research and what you can learn there.

When choosing your internship, think about what you plan to do the year after. Do you plan to begin a PhD, to find a job in a company, to launch a start-up or anything else? There will be many opportunities for you, but some of them require a specific internship.

For an academic PhD prefer an internship in an academic lab, it may give you good references and even propose PhD opportunities. A thesis in a company is also conceivable, in this case favour rather important companies, small ones rarely have the means to support a PhD student.

For a future career in a company remember to become the real specialist they will need, the internship is there to train you in a specialty but also to give you the opportunity to prove your scientific and technical competences, often big or small companies use internships to test their future employers, it will be your last student exam so don’t miss it!

Whatever the type of internship you will choose, your ability to present the progress of your work and your results clearly and synthetically is also very important and may influence strongly your future. Therefore, the internship ends with a report and an oral defence, see on SynapseS the dedicated advices for these topics.

You will have to choose an internship at the end of December or during January, to this end you will benefit on the web of a lot of information:
- Dedicated proposals received for STEEM students will be posted.
- The list of internships done by STEEM, REST and WAPE students during the previous years.
- The Polytechnique Career Center internship proposals whatever the discipline.
- You may join the LINKEDIN group “Ecole Polytechnique Energy & Environment Master Programs” that gathers a large number of Alumni, Professors and academic or industrial partners

These links will appear in time on your Polytechnique SynapseS account

Also do not hesitate to contact your professors.

About the procedure:
- Once you will have found an interesting internship, first contact Alexandre STEGNER for his approval of the subject and of the hosting organisation.
- At the end of November you will receive information about internship contract procedure from Mrs Michèle Gesbert, in charge of Master-2 internships.
- A “Convention de Stage” will be signed by you, your host organisation, a STEEM academic referent, and Ecole Polytechnique.

MEC669 - Microfluidics and Biosystems (2021-2022)

In this course, we will build on the concepts introduced in the first year of the program to better understand how microfluidic devices work. We will take a close look at fluid flows and how to manipulate them at small scales, and delve into notions from chemistry, biochemistry and biology to obtain a better insight into the promises and current limitations of existing microdevices.

MIE550 - Entreprise et Innovation (2021-2022)

MIE551 - Economie Industrielle (2021-2022)

MIE552 - Innovation et Société (2021-2022)

PHY652E - Introduction to Power Systems (Intro to PS) (2021-2022)

GEN100 - Bachelor Welcome and Transition Weeks (2021-2022)