Meteorology (from ancient Greek â€śmeteorâ€ť designating particles suspended in the atmosphere and â€ślogosâ€ť meaning discourse or knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmospheric phenomena such as clouds, lows and precipitation in order to understand how they form and evolve. This discipline is based primarily on fluid mechanics applied to the air but makes also use of various other branches of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Purely descriptive origin, meteorology has become a place of application of these disciplines.
Modern meteorology allows weather forecast based on mathematical models for short and long term. It also allows the prediction of air quality and intervenes in areas of human activity (natural hazards, construction, aviation, navigation, production of renewable energy ,...).
In this context, the atmospheric boundary layer at the interface between the surface and the free atmosphere, is a particularly important because it is the seat of transfer of energy, humidity, gaseous and particulate gaseous compounds, which drive the distribution of horizontal and vertical fields of water vapor, aerosols, clouds and pollutants.
The course covers the basics of the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer on flat ground, then the specific case of complex terrain at the base of coastal and mountain meteorology ... The impact of weather on the environment will be illustrated throughout the course. More specifically the course outline is as follows:
1.Introduction (history of meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer definition, atmospheric boundary layer weather phenomena, buoyancy and stability, Boussinesq equations)
2.Weather on flat terrain and homogeneous
a.Turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (theory of Monin-Obukhov, turbulent Ekman layer) b.Convection and coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer
3.Meteorology on complex terrain
- Coastal meteorology - Sea breeze (linear and nonlinear dynamics, impact on the dispersion of pollution in coastal area)
b.Inland breeze (urban breeze, impact of land use on the weather)
a.Flow over mountains (hydraulic analogy, wave approach, wave breaking and turbulence, formation of storms and heavy rainfall and impact on weather risk management in mountainous environment)
b.Flow in valleys (hydraulic model, inter-valley flow, impact on pollution dispersion in mountainous terrain) 5.Conclusion and perspectives (weather and climate, meteorology and weather risk management, meteorology and energy production)Â