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Quotations and bibliography

Bibliographical citations are intended, in the body of the report, to mention the source exploited at a key moment of the demonstration: when reference is made to numerical data, to an experiment, to an argument, to a demonstration.

> What forms can quotations take?


  • The exact (word for word) reproduction of the excerpt from a book, an article is a literal quotation and always appears in quotation marks.
  • If the quotation is not literal, the idea of an author is paraphrased. You must quote it by mentioning its name and the publication that supports your demonstration.
  • For data, tables, graphs or photographs, it should be verified that the originator of the table or graph itself has mentioned the source of the data and cite both.

Bibliographic citations supplement, but do not replace, the bibliography that must be written according to a specific standard: the general standard is ISO690: 2010 or AFNOR Z 44-005 (printed and patent) and Z 44-005-2 (electronic documents). In science, the IEEE standard is also used extensively.


> How to cite a document?

The citation of the source can be inserted at the place where the information is mentioned, or be noted at the bottom of the page, by inserting a note in your text.
4 basic criteria for any citation of bibliography:

  •      All information that identifies the document must be present (title, author, publisher, date, pages, ...)
  •      The information must be presented in a specific order established by the standard.
  •      The style must be homogeneous between all references, especially for documents of the same type.
  •      References must be classified according to one of the three classification systems (in alphabetical order of author names without numbering, in order of appearance in the text with numbering, in alphabetical order of author names with numbering).

> How to write a bibliography?


  • for a book

AUTHOR. Full title. Volume / volume. Mention of edition. Place of publication: Publisher, date of issue. (Title of collection, number in collection)

ex. : LEBART. Statistique exploratoire multidimensionnelle. 3ème édition. Paris : Dunod, 2000.


  • For a book chapter

AUTHOR. Title of the chapter. In Title of the work. Place of publication: Publisher, date of issue. Start and end pages.

ex. : LEBART. Modèle bidimensionnel. Statistique exploratoire multidimensionnelle. 3ème édition. Paris : Dunod, 2000. 135-158p.


  • For a journal article

AUTHOR. Title of article. Title of the periodical. Year of publication, volume, number, start and end pages

ex. : CHRISTENSEN THOMAS. Can innovative business models overcome resistance to electric vehicles? Better Place and battery electric cars in Denmark. Energy Policy. 2012, 48, p. 498-505


  • For a website

AUTHOR (or ORGANIZATION). Title of the page [online]. Place of publication: publisher (or organization), year of creation, Available on: <URL>. (Date of consultation)

ex. : US DEPT OF ENERGY. All-electric vehicles. [s.l.] Disponible sur : < https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml>. (24/04/2015)


  • For a thesis, a research paper, a report, ...

AUTHOR, DIRECTOR. Title of thesis. Number of pages. Disciplined. Place of defense: Univresité de defense, year of defense.

ex. : BARFUSS. Recherche de leptoquarks de premiére génération au sein de l'expérience D0 au Tevatron. Thèse de doctorat, Physique. Marseille : Aix-Marseille II, 2008.


  • For an act of congress

NAME OF CONGRESS (n °, year, place). Title of Congress. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication. Number of pages.


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